With AutoCAD on Life
ITC On-Line UKRAINE, 04-2001
For the first time I have confronted with the tenth version of system AutoCAD in 1988 at realization of computing experiment for the dissertation in Institute of automatic systems (The ministry of an air industry USSR) being the leader in use of computer engineering in the branch. The basic task consist in account of parameters of physical processes of drives of machines. The first decision on personal computers, which then has involved in them mass attention, was the tabulared processor - primogenitor of modern spreadsheets. And AutoCAD became one of the first graphic systems realized on PC. Sometimes it ON name some more by graphic database, and it is valid so. Convenient access to the data and nucleus of system, and also the opportunities of management of the interface have allowed the developers to create huge quantity of the engineering applications, which are supported to this day.
It is necessary to say, that for the engineer even superficially familiar with programming, the development AutoCAD does not represent the special complexity. And if besides there is an experience of design development, it will allow at once to define all tools, necessary for him. The job is connected to attributes of objects in AutoCAD with the advanced decisions in СУБД. The package gives a wide spectrum of means for creation of the own applications, switching AutoLisp and Visual LISP, and also is compatible with VBA, ObjectARX and C ++. Many years AutoCAD was the basic tool of the developers of departments САПР of the enterprises, where he was used and as a program nucleus, and as a means of creation of the interactive interface of the specialized applications.
AutoCAD: for and against
If it was necessary to choose computer graphic system, AutoCAD, as a rule, outweighed. He has a perfect set of drawing tools for exact отрисовки and construction of interfaces, has opportunities for creation of digital model of object and realization of its analysis, geometrical flat and spatial calculations, preparation of high-quality presentation materials. In AutoCAD it is possible simultaneously and precisely enough to work both with very large spatial objects, and with microdesigns. For example, by development of sea automatic devices I had to project and lining of a cable line of length up to several сот of kilometers, and optical sockets of the same line, applying the same tool - AutoCAD.
AutoCAD has all necessary for collective job above the project. As a result of such organization of activity speed, first, is increased, and secondly, the quality of the engineering decisions raises. The presence at collective of the developers of the programmer familiar with AutoLisp or other similar language, allows to decide many tasks on creation of library of elements, automation of filling of the specifications and data cards. Though the necessity for maintenance of libraries with growth of productivity and purchase of enough of operating time in due course disappears.
The accuracy of calculations, which provides AutoCAD, allows to spend modeling fields of the admissions for complex technological elements, for example of long inclined channels of hydraulic allocators. In one drawing it is possible to construct both circle of an orbit of the companion, and companion in the valid sizes.
So the popular now Flash-presentations based on анимации the vector diagrams, steel are possible with occurrence some more first versions AutoCAD. For this purpose on Lisp or with the help скриптов the film, including interactive was done.
The universality of this product proves to be true by the list of the projects, in job above which the large help has appeared AutoCAD. By development of the engine of the flying device and account of parameters of working process in a package the definition of geometry of a design and its optimization was spent; the designing of sea cable systems included not only designing кинематики of complex automatic devices, but also creation of presentation rollers; job above the catalogue of the equipment for КИАПО by him. About. To. Антонова assumed creation of a database; it was necessary to be engaged корпусированием of electronic blocks and to develop exact volumetric models of interiors. What already to speak about the design decisions for the outdoor advertising, pneumodesigns, mapping and much by the friend. And all this was carried out on AutoCAD.
And now about sad...
That during a number of years was obvious advantage AutoCAD, - continuity of the decisions (expert who has mastered the version AutoCAD 2.х, with success can work in the version AutoCAD 2000, applying skills on creation of the flat drawings and using one command line and cursor arrows), today requires reconsideration. Many from initial functional modules already are not necessary in any kind, and it concerns and to types of objects, and to the descriptions of their properties.
The long time application of the standards of development of the design documentation for AutoCAD was difficult a task. It concerned drawing the sizes, fields of the admissions and designation of deviations. So desired for the engineers of an indulgence and reconsideration of the standards on the design documents concerning formats of the drawings, отрисовки рамочек, drawn forms and uses of large fonts and have not come. And you see on the modern printer of a format А3 it is absolutely simple to deduce the drawings as a minimum of a format А2, and without loss of quality. And the presence of scaling copy engineering decides a task of granting to the enterprises of copies of the necessary size (user in industry like the drawings of scale 1:1). Till now there is no standard of representation of the drawings as photorealistic models. Besides average, prepared enough the machine tool operator prefers the in detail "chewed" flat image on true a piece of a paper, though the volumetric photorealistic representation of object of processing repeatedly raises speed of manufacturing of complex details and reduces probability of occurrence of mistakes.
To this day basic the problem with styles draw of lines is. Shaped and point-line of a line on the drawing the basic contours should cross what automatically to realize with the help of parameters of style rather difficultly. The possible computer decision could consist in branch by colour or thickness of a line. The same problem arises with representation of the texts with the help of SHP-fonts (planimetric). They are necessary at a conclusion on pen and pencil devices, which today use all less often, preferring fonts TrueType.
In AutoCAD 2000 and has not appeared of a convenient means of display and transformation of volumetric ph. The exact creation and trasformation of 3D-models, certainly, is conclusive advantage, however at the same time by manufacture of modern jobs it is necessary to have high efficiency, т. е. To work quickly.
In connection with the basic approach AutoCAD to a method of representation of planimetric objects at imposing flat objects it is necessary to apply shifts to concealment of invisible lines. In general, it would be desirable, that AutoCAD became similar in means of creation and editing of objects on graphic systems similar Corel or Adobe.
In many high schools of Ukraine a base means for development CAD is AutoCAD. It is studied even by the schoolboys at the profile educational centres. In connection with sharp fall of the prices on a conclusion of the drawings of the large format on plotter henceforth majority of course and degree jobs is represented as the drawings executed on AutoCAD. Besides AutoCAD allows especially effectively to solve tasks the engineering geometry on joint solids.
At the enterprises with traditional technology of designing saved the old staff (sometimes in direct sense) and where manufacture is in a stage of restoration, the retraining is frequently spent, that enables to result development in the so-called world standards. And its first stage just also is the study AutoCAD. It is interesting, that unwillingness to create the electronic drawings passes at once ambassador of a beginning of dialogue with the foreign partners, which do not understand other way of representation of the design documentation.
The package allows to carry out training on the limited resources of the computer (from IBM/PC 286, thus the most part of functions on creation and editing of 2D-objects will be mastered).
The training to receptions of possession of the basic tools AutoCAD occupies from 8 up to 15 lectures. And it is very important, that trained understood, for what it is necessary for him and in what he wins, using AutoCAD. The designers having practical experience best are trained. The most effective results at training are reached by groups of the experts conducting real development, thus the advantages of computer designing become clear not only executors, but also the sufficient share of scepticism concerning application of computer technologies is inherent in a management, to which.
From AutoCAD to Inventor
It is not known, whether becomes end of epoch AutoCAD a new product of the company - AutoDesk Inventor, but he is constructed on an essentially new architectural nucleus which is distinct from AutoCAD. Obviously, what is it reaction of firm to a varied situation in the market CAD, where the strong positions begin to borrow means of solid-state parametrical modeling from corporations SolidWorks and PTC. As the representatives AutoDesk declare, on development AutoDesk Inventor four years are cunning almost. By the way, the above mentioned name is appropriated to a product at the official announcement of a beginning of deliveries, and to the present time already there was his fourth version. The initial code name sounded as Rubikon. The name speaks for itself...
>>>>>>>>>>About the author.
Alexander Melnik, the engineer - designer, has 12-year's experience of job with AutoCAD in various organizations: Institute of automatic systems (The ministry of an air industry USSR), Design bureau "Storm" (Kiev Polytechnical Institute) , Antonov firm, Paton Electric Welding Institute, Scientifically research insitute "Reducer", Mechanical Engineering Institute of The USSR Academy etc.